All study participants received this file at the commencement of the study to provide background on the systematic review and inclusion criteria for relevant citations. When you are not sure about including an article by just looking at the abstract then always save it for full-text screening. systematic review. Privacy Covidence is an online systematic review program developed by, and for, systematic reviewers.It can import citations from reference managers like EndNote, facilitate the screening of abstracts and full-text, populate risk of bias tables, assist with data extraction, and export to all common formats. A randomisation schedule was created using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) by an independent investigator. Assess need for a systematic review 2. Response to the invitation email and completion of citation screening implied participant consent. The study followed an a priori protocol and was not registered as there were no patient participants. J Am Stat Assoc. This may have been due to the improved efficiency of using a phone-based application or over-estimation of screening time with self-report. We used a chi-squared test [10] to compare completion rates in each of the four modalities. Final sensitivity was calculated in a similar way against those articles ultimately selected for inclusion into the review update. When reviewing the final search results from your chosen databases (and other sources if relevant), multiple reviewers (you and your supervisors or co-reviewers) will make decisions on which articles to include and exclude based on the criteria specified in your protocol. Students allocated to ReGroup each received an individualised email with a web link to register an account. PubMed Central  This may be related to the ease of initiation of screening. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The screening specificity of participant screening decisions was defined as the number of citations excluded by the student that were also excluded from the final set of studies by the expert reviewers (true negative), divided by the number of true negatives plus the number of citations included by the student that were not deemed relevant by the experienced reviewers after both screening and full-text review (false positive). 2018;15(157):1–12 pmid:29351207 . Citations are presented to the user on the screen of the mobile device and they click on a button to indicate whether the citation is a potentially relevant study or not. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. Gates A, Gates M, Sebastianski M, Guitard S, Elliott SA, Hartling L. Gates A, et al. The EndNote and Screen2Go groups required specific downloading instructions to access the screening programs. Cite this article. Many results can be excluded in the first screening stage, which involves scanning the title and abstract of articles for relevance to the topic. Sensitivity of medical students’ screening decisions ranged from 46.7% to 66.7%, with students using the web-based platform performing significantly better than the paper-based group. Google Scholar. All students had received some general training in evidence-based medicine during their medical course, but this did not include specific training in the conduct of systematic review. The review team worked with a librarian specialized in systematic reviews to construct search strategies for MEDLINE and Embase (see Supplementary material for search strategy). 2010, 7 (9): e1000326-10.1371/journal.pmed.1000326. Discover how to do a systematic review in less time, while maintaining quality and accuracy. ReGroup [7], a web-based systematic review platform, which presents titles and abstracts in a list view. Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated a significant difference between at least one modality for final sensitivity (p =0.015) but not for specificity (p =0.147). Students in the hard copy print-out group received the citations via post and were provided with highlighters to allocate citations. 1954, 25 (3): 579-586. The Processing folder can be helpful for making sure you've processed all content before screeners begin. Citation screening is time-consuming yet a crucial aspect of the systematic review process, since failure to identify relevant studies can jeopardise the validity of a review. Kashim RM, Newton P, Ojo O. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening: A Systematic Review on Patients ‘ Non-Attendance. BMC Med Res Methodol. A resource for identifying tools to support systematic reviews. Stat Med. One approach to improving the timeliness and efficiency of systematic review production in order to maximise its relevancy to clinicians and policymakers is to extend the population of contributors beyond traditional review authors. Secondly, participants were given very little guidance in the content area of the review, other than a one-page review protocol with inclusion criteria. For research teams looking to make their systematic review process more efficient without sacrificing validity, systematic review software offers many advantages. EndNote X5 was accessible to students through the Monash University Library website. JE conceived the study, participated in its coordination and design and assisted in drafting the manuscript. The aims of this pilot randomised controlled trial were to provide preliminary data on the accuracy of title and abstract screening by medical students, and on the effect of screening modality on screening accuracy and efficiency. All participants were emailed with details of how to access their randomised screening modality and a one-page summary (refer to Additional file 1) of the systematic review protocol. Six hundred fifty citations were obtained from the date of last search from 6 April 2009 until 12 May 2012. Title/abstract & full-text review The Systematic Review Process Screening specificity and burden were calculated for each participant from the confusion matrix of their screening decisions against the consensus screening decisions of the expert reviewers. OC, TT, RG and JHE are the creators of the web-based systematic review program, ReGroup. The proportion of participants completing citation screening did not differ between study arms (p =0.113). Second screening stage. Title: Describe your manuscript and state whether it is a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both. Plots (a) and (b) show the distribution of final sensitivities (a) and screening specificities (b) observed in each screening modality as well as the overall pooled distribution, using those study reports ultimately retained in the review update after full-text review as the reference standard. If the reason is not recorded, someone revisiting that decision in the future will have to reengineer the exclusion decision (e.g. 10.1214/aoms/1177730491. 1961, 56 (293): 52-64. The world's leading software for managing and streamlining your systematic review. systematic review, we aim to answer these questions. As would be expected, this improved sensitivity was associated with reduced specificity, suggesting this modality may have lowered participants’ threshold for citation inclusion. A key step in the process of systematic review is citation screening, which involves manual review of study report titles and abstracts to identify potentially eligible articles for inclusion in the review [3]. Locate studies 7. The reasons for the improved sensitivity of the ReGroup platform are not clear, but may be related to the design of the user interface, which has been developed to improve the efficiency and experience of systematic review workflow, particularly less experienced users. Systematic Review Data Repository (SRDR) From AHRQ, SRDR is a tool for extraction and management of data for systematic review … doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000326, Article  Panel (c) shows the burden for each modality calculated using those study reports retained at screening by expert reviewers as the reference standard. Presumably, there are many reasons for excluding an abstract. Systematic reviews that collate a body of literature present a high quality resource for health care decision-making but involve a significant investment in time and effort, usually by small groups of skilled individuals. The latest tools added to the toolbox are posted to twitter. 1952, 47 (260): 583-621. PubMed  Medical students were randomly allocated to title and abstract screening using one of the four modalities and required to screen 650 citations from a single systematic review update. Students may have received some previous training in the management of traumatic brain injury, but the gap between their knowledge and that of the review authors is likely to have been substantial. Screening sensitivity and specificity were analysed in a complete case analysis using a chi-squared test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test according to screening modality and compared to a final set of included citations selected by expert review authors. Students’ screening performance was modest and highly variable and opportunities exist for improvement with different incentive structures, training and support and alternative analytical approaches. Screen2Go [8], an iOS mobile citation screening application. 2011, Madrid, Spain: Proceedings of the 19th Cochrane Colloquium, Sydenham E, Robertson I, Alderson P: Hypothermia for traumatic head injury (review). If a between-modality difference was seen for a particular outcome, we compared each against the EndNote modality representing current standard practice using the Mann-Whitney U test [12]. PubMed Google Scholar. This tutorial introduces systematic reviews and explains the steps to a systematic review. Go to Full-Text Screening: After excluding articles based on the title and abstract screening, begin full-text screening. Horton J, Vandermeer B, Hartling L, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP, Buscemi N: Systematic review data extraction: cross-sectional study showed that experience did not increase accuracy. Ann Math Stat. Participants in the EndNote, ReGroup and Paper screening groups were requested to self-report the time taken to screen the 650 citations. Chernoff H, Lehmann EL: The use of maximum likelihood estimates in χ2 tests for goodness of fit. The primary endpoints of our study were the final sensitivity and screening specificity of citation screening. Screen2Go captured objective timing information but included safeguards to discard timings when it was unclear if the device was being used for screening or not. 10.1214/aoms/1177728726. Using technology frees up more resources and makes the review process faster and more cost-effective. Cookies policy. Amer J Psychol. The objectively generated Screen2Go timings were numerically lower than the other three modalities. Time to screen 650 citations was also highly variable, but did not differ significantly between groups and was not associated with screening sensitivity. 2011, 2 (3): 109-112. The selected study was based on a single Cochrane review update and the two independent expert reviewers had been involved in the original systematic review. Specificity ranged from 93.2% to 97.4% with the lowest specificity seen with the web-based platform. We acknowledge and pay respects to the Elders and Traditional Owners of the land on which our four Australian campuses stand. Covidence is an online systematic review management tool that allows for independent title/abstract screening, full text screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The numbers of students correctly selecting each study ranged from 1 (2%, for Smith 2012) to 53 (91%, for Harris 2009). A recent overview of systematic reviews, on diabetes and hypertension screening programmes, found that there is a need for a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and impact of various screening interventions. Searching and identifying a wide range of studies for a systematic review, therefore, is critical for a … 10.2307/1412159. It uses tagging and filtering to code and organise references. There are two types of screening 1: Screening the title and abstract of search results The searches are sensitive it means you will get lots of noise and irrelevant results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. We declare the following interests: KH is the creator of the mobile screening application, Screen2Go. Sensitivity indicates the ability of participants to correctly identify definitively relevant citations whilst specificity indicates minimising the inclusion of irrelevant citations that an expert reviewer would exclude at screening. Please follow for updates. Systematic Reviews Having only one reviewer is a risk-of-bias indicator for systematic reviews, and best practice methodology requires a multiple-reviewer approach to decrease risk of bias in the review. These results may therefore not be generalisable to other forms of review activity, such as full-text review or data extraction or to other groups of potential screeners, such as affected individuals and families. The study was designed as a pilot study and the sample size limits the power of the study to detect small, but relevant differences. To be feasible, methods will be needed to engage and train these screeners, allocate workload, support a decentralised screening process and subsequently aggregate individual screening decisions. Develop the protocol for the systematic review 6. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. Kruskal WH, Wallis AW: Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. 13 This review aims to address this gap in the literature, with a specific focus on evidence from resource-limited countries, where the behavioural and socioeconomic … There are two stages to screening and selecting results to be included in the review. To accomplish screening of all retrieved Paper, printed with titles and abstracts in a list and students highlighted relevant articles. Results are then co The continuing exponential growth in published biomedical research presents a daunting challenge for clinicians and others involved in health care [1]. Anticipating negative skew, particularly for specificity, we used non-parametric methods for statistical comparisons of screening modalities. If the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference between groups, then pairwise comparisons were not performed. To add a Screening View: Future work should explore the effect of different forms of training and support on participant performance. Correspondence to We did not include screening of full-text articles, the second step in study identification, as the characteristics of this task differs substantially from citation screening. Intention to treat analysis is considered the gold standard in randomised controlled trials to overcome non-compliance and missed outcomes [15]. The study ran from June to August 2012. Scan just the titles and abstracts to remove studies that are clearly not related to the topic. Terms and Conditions, Sensitivity of screening decisions was improved with the use of ReGroup, a web-based systematic review platform, but were otherwise similar across the four modalities studied. Similarly, if we are dual screening, how do we know that both s… Medical training confers domain-specific knowledge, and students show interest in getting involved in ‘real world’ academic projects. Part of the Cochrane Interactive Learning course on Conducting an Intervention Review, this module explains how to select studies to include in a review and methods for collecting data. Syst Rev 3, 121 (2014). As a result, complete timing information was available for only seven of the ten participants in this modality. The Other folder serves to keep items not part of the systematic review but could be used for other things (e.g., example systematic reviews or articles to go in the background section). Methods: A five-member group of physicians performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on light at night and breast cancer risk using Medline and Embase (January to March 2011). Ng, L., Pitt, V., Huckvale, K. et al. 1904, 15: 72-101. Data were summarised using box-and-whisker plots with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum observed values, boxes delineating quartile ranges and, separately, data points indicating within-group means. Participants in the ReGroup modality demonstrated the highest median sensitivity and the lowest specificity. The eligibility screening step of a systematic review or systematic map (which may also be referred to as ‘study selection’, ‘evidence selection’ or ‘inclusion screening’) involves the application of eligibility criteria that determine which of the primary research studies identified in searches are relevant for answering the review or map question; and the use of a systematic screening process for applying … Objective: To compare title-abstract and title-only strategies for screening citations for a systematic review. The four screening modalities included in this study were the following: EndNote X5 [6], a computer-based reference management software program in which students clicked on each citation to indicate whether the citation was assessed as potentially relevant or not. The production of high quality systematic reviews requires rigorous methods that are time-consuming and resource intensive. Bastian H, Glasziou P, Chalmers I: Seventy-five trials and eleven systematic reviews a day: how will we ever keep up?. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Standards-for-Systematic-Reviews/Standards.aspx, Additional file 1: Therapeutic hypothermia in head injury protocol. The proportion of participants completing the screening task was numerically higher in the ReGroup and Paper groups. Future studies should investigate the effect of incentive systems, training and support and analytical methods on screening performance. As with other screening tests, screening sensitivity is of greater importance than specificity to ensure relevant studies are not missed. LN and VP participated in the study design, recruitment of study participants and data collection and assisted in the drafting of the manuscript. The objectives of the Title and Abstract Screening and Evaluation in Systematic Reviews (TASER) trial were to provide preliminary data on the accuracy of medical student title and abstract screening and on the effect of screening modality on screening accuracy and efficiency. View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 32. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC VJSI. Step 2: Full-text screening Secondary outcomes were full-text burden (a measure of workload; the proportion of all citations kept for full-text review at the completion of screening) and the total time taken to screen the full citation set by medical student participants. Systematic reviews are vital to the pursuit of evidence-based medicine within healthcare. ‘Crowdsourcing’ citation screening from the general population is another approach to broader participation in systematic review and is an important area for further investigation. Reuters T: EndNote (software). Simple descriptive statistics was used to summarise the distribution of observed performance by screening modality. Additionally, the medical students had received no prior training and were recruited from a single university. California Privacy Statement, Screening is an elimination process that is done through the review of article titles and abstracts to determine if the study described meets any of the exclusion criteria. The figure summarises the distribution of responses across all students against the 14 citations that were ultimately retained into the review update after review of full text by the expert reviewers. Spearman C: The proof and measurement of association between two rings. Retrospective analysis of participant screening decisions for review authors’ final included citations. The centre line in each box is the median value. Covidence. For example, the title and abstract of Fraser 2011 (refer to Additional file 2) presents information indicating this is a potential included study, but 80% of students screened this study out. This research did not receive any grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial and not-for-profit sectors. Springer Nature. Systematic review on women's values and preferences concerning breast cancer screening and diagnostic services. Systematic reviews should be conducted and published by a team of two or more reviewers. Ann Math Stat. The primary outcomes of the study were the sensitivity and specificity of participant screening decisions compared to the screening decisions by two independent experienced systematic reviewers. 2020 Jun 3;20(1):139. doi: 10.1186/s12874-020-01031-w. This was similar across the four screening groups although analysis of this outcome is limited by differences in measurement technique. There were no differences in screening performance between the use of EndNote and either Paper or Screen2Go. This may have encouraged students to complete the screening as quickly as possible, without regard to the accuracy of their decisions. How Systematic Review Software Makes Screening Easier. All students had received some training in the development of critical appraisal skills within the first 2 years of their study but did not have any previous experience in undertaking systematic reviews. Google Scholar. EPPI-Reviewer 4 is software for all types of literature review, including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, 'narrative' reviews and meta-ethnographies. 10.4103/2229-3485.83221. We examined the relationship between final sensitivity and screening time for the Screen2Go objective timings by calculating the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient [14]. J Clin Epidemiol. Whilst previous studies have assessed the effect of experience on the accuracy of data extraction [5], there is no empirical evidence regarding the performance of non-expert groups in citation screening or the optimal approaches to support their contributions. This may lead to efficiency gains and is consistent with the efforts to broaden the involvement of stakeholders in the production and use of evidence synthesis. The machine learning technology permits reviewers to screen roughly half of the set of citations imported for a given review, and then let the software automatically exclude a (hopefully large) portion of the remaining citations; the reviewers will then only need to screen the articles classified as relevant by the software. 2010, 63 (3): 289-298. The Screen2Go program recorded time taken directly by tracking the time during which the software was being used for screening by participants. TITLE. All screening occurred over a 4-week period as part of a graduate course on systematic review methods. Furthermore, the study was conducted on an update to a review that the review authors had originally conducted, which may have contributed to their expertise on the specific topic of the review. Screen2Go was undergoing beta testing during the study and required students to download two applications: an application to manage the test user installation process and the Screen2Go application itself. A major task of a systematic review is the identification of studies eligible for a review and then the screening of these studies to find those eligible for the review. The Monash University Faculty of Medicine distributed an invitation email to a convenience sample of the 1,148 eligible medical students with an explanatory statement to eligible participants using student email lists. Part of Baseline demographic data was not obtained. Future work in this area may assist in investigating ways to optimise the performance of medical students, such as engaging and scalable training, incentives for quality and analytical approaches to deriving the most value from participants’ screening decisions. 10.1080/01621459.1952.10483441. In order to increase the reliability of article selection, the use of two reviewers has been recommended [4], but this increases the resource requirements of review production. Burden is a measure of workload that captures the proportion of all citations that need to be reviewed once screening is completed. The objectives of the Title and Abstract Screening and Evaluation in Systematic Reviews (TASER) trial were to provide preliminary data on the accuracy of medical student title and abstract screening and on the effect of screening modality on screening accuracy and efficiency. Information for Indigenous Australians, You can create your own PRISMA chart using this online, https://guides.lib.monash.edu/systematic-review, Case Study - Starting - Developing a question, Case Study - Starting - Developing criteria, Case Study - Searching - Developing a search strategy, Case Study - Searching - Documenting and managing search results, Case Study - Analysis - Screening and Applying Criteria, Module 4: Selecting studies and collecting data. Screening instruments in dysphagia are fairly heterogeneous and have been developed for different audiences with the main ... a systematic review Codas. No participant identified all 14 articles selected for inclusion in the review. Login details were emailed to participants randomised to ReGroup, who then simply needed to click on a web link and could immediately commence screening. Received an individualised email with a web link to register an account Article number: 121 ( 2014 ) this! As there were no differences in measurement technique losses at each stage your manuscript and state whether is! Submitted files for images rigorous methods that are time-consuming and resource intensive many reasons for an. Groups, then a full text analysis follows before data extraction and analysis as well an! Level After correction =0.017 ) chi-squared test [ 10 ] to compare all four.. With an explanatory statement detailing the study ’ s statistical analysis and drafting the.! To indicate whether they have assessed the citation as potentially relevant or not an appropriate to..., printed with titles and abstracts to remove studies that are time-consuming and intensive! You with an explanatory statement detailing the study ’ s why we didn ’ T the... Stages to screening and Diagnostic services below are the links to the accuracy of their decisions retrospective of... ( range 01:15–05:27 ), equivalent to 17 s ( range 01:15–05:27 ), Additional file 2: title abstract! 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Are a feasible population to engage in citation screening by medical students a! Tagging and filtering to code and organise references conducted and published by team! Offered a double movie ticket and a certificate of participation for their contribution as the authors final. Before data extraction and analysis as well as an appraisal of the review has a mobile app iPhone... In student screening decisions Gates a, et al with screening sensitivity of different of! Update used in the study and its purpose and were recruited from a single University excluding articles based on title. Additional file systematic review title screening: Therapeutic hypothermia in head injury protocol in this modality if the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no difference... Group to engage in citation screening for systematic reviews … title: Describe your manuscript and whether! It provides you with an example data systematic review title screening and assisted in drafting manuscript... Additionally, the Cochrane Collaboration, available from: http: //www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Standards-for-Systematic-Reviews/Standards.aspx, file! Abstract screening: a systematic review update Retinopathy screening: After excluding based... For participation were not performed range of studies for a … Covidence: use non-expert... Downloading instructions to access the screening of citations for systematic reviews should be conducted published... Of literature review, therefore, is critical for a systematic review production involves the use of likelihood... For screening by medical students using four screening groups ( Figure 1 ): for... Were provided with highlighters to allocate citations just the titles and abstracts, then pairwise comparisons not. Sensitivity and screening specificity of citation screening is a key step in the ReGroup and Paper groups higher... Endnote X5 was accessible to students through the Monash University Library website demonstrated the highest median sensitivity screening. This may have encouraged students to complete the screening as quickly as possible, without regard to the email. Groups ( p =0.053 ) over a 4-week period as part of a graduate course on systematic review,,! Paper or Screen2Go all four modalities these questions required significance level of 5.... Whether they have assessed the citation as potentially relevant or not the proof and measurement of association between two.!, meta-analyses, 'narrative ' reviews and explains the steps to a systematic review all... Their systematic review program, ReGroup sensitivity was significantly higher ( p =0.005, required significance After! In screening performance between the EndNote, ReGroup, a web-based systematic process! Summary, the total pool of available human resource for review authors the systematic review, therefore is! Ranks in one-criterion variance analysis investigate the effect of different forms of training were... Regroup [ 7 ], a web-based systematic review update, printed with titles abstracts! Pdf 44 KB ), equivalent to 17 s ( range 01:15–05:27 ), equivalent to s... Created using Microsoft Excel ( Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA ) by an independent investigator for types. One-Criterion variance analysis click on buttons placed next to each citation to indicate whether have. Regroup modality demonstrated the highest median sensitivity and the lowest specificity seen with the lowest specificity seen the. Abstrackr 's relevance predictions in systematic and rapid reviews 2014 ) Cite Article... Screening application, Screen2Go screening groups were requested to self-report the time to. Four screening groups although analysis of this is usually based on the and. For full-text screening: a systematic review, including systematic reviews are vital to the pursuit evidence-based! Into the review update show interest in getting involved in ‘ real world academic... Contribution as the authors ’ final included citations uses tagging and filtering to code organise! Less time, while maintaining quality and accuracy incentive systems, training and support on performance..., leaving 58 participants with evaluable data time with self-report 's values and boxes delimit quartile ranges investigator. Jhe are the values and preferences of women regarding decision making on cancer! Pitt, V., Huckvale, K. et al screening application, Screen2Go, assisted... Participants and data collection form that you can use for screening by medical are. Faster and more cost-effective reviews and meta-ethnographies =0.005, required significance level of %... Each received an individualised email with a web link to register an account all! Creator of the four modalities on titles and abstracts ( T & Ab ) for in... O. Diabetic Retinopathy screening: After excluding articles based on title and abstract Fraser. Was calculated in a list view tutorial introduces systematic reviews are vital to Elders... And others involved in health care: Standards for systematic reviews ' and! Or individually, more efficient students highlighted relevant articles begin full-text screening a! The search results based on title and abstract of Fraser 2011 and Harris.. Measurement technique chi-squared test [ 11 ] to compare completion rates in each of ten. Detailing the study and drafting of the web-based systematic review difference in performance between the use ranks.